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Vol. XXXII, No. 1 (December 2016) - Complete Edition (PDF)
 
FEATURE ARTICLES

Motivation of South Korean Volunteers in International Sports: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis
John Bae, Ph.D. & Eddie T. C. Lam, Ph.D. & Hyuck-Gi Lee, Ph.D.
The number of volunteers required for sport events continues to rise each and every year because of the growing popularity of amateur and professional sports (Bae, Lee, & Massengale, 2011). As volunteers have become more and more important to national and international sporting events (Pauline & Pauline, 2009), there is a growth in the amount of research related to the motivation of volunteers or volunteering. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of investigation on volunteer motivation factors of the Korean population. The main purpose of the study reported here was to examine and identify the volunteer motivation factors of the Korean population and validate the Volunteer Motivation Scale (VMS). Participants of the study were 132 male and 142 female volunteers of the International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships. Results of the MANOVA analysis indicated the overall VMS model was marginal nonsignificant (Wilks' ? = 2.170, p = .058). Univariate ANOVAs showed no gender differences in Networking and Social Interaction, but males had significantly (p < .05) higher scores than females in Work Experience, Self-Determination, and Volunteering Abroad. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the revised 29-item VMS provided a good fit to the data (e.g., CFI = .97, SRMR = .061) and has sound psychometric properties that can be used to assess the motivation of volunteers in an international setting. It is concluded that males have a stronger belief than females that volunteering can give them opportunity for personal growth, and different strategies are necessary when recruiting volunteers... 
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Key Words: Volunteering; Motivation; Composite Reliability; Variance Extracted



Measurement in Volunteer Administration: Seven Arenas
Tyler Adams, Erica Mazzella, Kathy Renfro, Linda Schilling, & Mark A. Hager, Ph.D.
Nonprofit organizations regularly measure and evaluate the structure and output of their direct service programs, but rarely pay such attention to their volunteer programs. This paper outlines the importance of data collection and evaluation of volunteer programs in order to better serve and cultivate support from various stakeholders. We present seven arenas in which different metric data about a volunteer program would be used to deliver messages to different audiences and for different reasons: 1) outputs and stories from volunteers presented to the wider public can promote the organization’s client advocacy; 2) outputs, outcomes, and anecdotes should be delivered to grantmakers and donors when seeking grants and contributions; 3) outputs and reports of volunteer satisfaction should guide volunteer administrative staff regarding future administrative decisions; 4) outputs and budget-related outcomes will support the organization’s decision makers during strategic planning; 5) outcomes, impacts, and volunteer and staff satisfaction reports can garner support from the Board and the top management team for improved program delivery; 6) expanded value-added calculations should be incorporated by the Board, donors, and watchdogs as a component of financial and social accounting; 7) all of the above information should be measured and reported to advocate for greater volunteer management capacity. While these efforts for measuring, tracking, and evaluating volunteer-related data require money, time, and expertise, organizations that invest in them will reap benefits that include greater internal and public expression of their mission, stronger outputs, improved volunteer management, more effective program delivery, and increasingly robust impacts on our communities. …
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Key Words: Measurement, Evaluation, Management



They Don’t Have Anyone: An Exploratory Study of Volunteer Legal Guardians in the Community
Andrea L. Jones, Ph.D.
Volunteer legal guardians accept responsibility for decision-making on behalf of people who are cognitively incapacitated. Recruiting volunteers to act as legal guardians for incapacitated older and disabled adults may be critical in meeting the increased demand in light of the growth of these populations in the community and reduced agency funding. This volunteer task may be unique requiring a high degree of responsibility for critical decisions made on behalf of another. Moreover, volunteer guardian programs are relatively uncommon. The research reported here sought to understand why people accept this task, and how they may be similar to and different from a sample of volunteers engaged in more generalist volunteer tasks (hospitals, schools, etc.) This exploratory research builds upon an existing research base on reasons for volunteering using a sample of guardians from a mid-Atlantic guardianship agency. Qualitative data indicates volunteers who are motivated to help the ‘unbefriended,’ those who have no one to help them, and the opportunity to give back to their community. In addition, the respondents valued learning skills to navigate the aging and disability service systems. Quantitative data using a validated measure of volunteer motivation indicate guardians scored higher on altruistic factors (values) and lower on more egoist factors (career and enhancement) than indicated in studies of generalist volunteer endeavors. Implications include increased understanding of the task to inform providers that may choose to include a volunteer guardian component, and the potential need for targeted recruitment in volunteer guardian programs and in public programs serving older and disabled adults.. …
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Key Words: Volunteer, Volunteer Guardians, Legal Guardianship, Incapacity



Obtaining an Entry-Level Position in Sport and Recreation: Do Volunteer Experiences Matter??
Tricia Jordan, Ph.D., Paula Upright, Ph.D., Craig A. Peden
In the field of sport and recreation, instructors often emphasize the importance of experience as students seek their first position within the field. This experience comes from a variety of opportunities including internships, volunteer experiences, service learning, and paid positions. Barr and McNeilly (2002) found internships, part-time work, and leadership positions provided better opportunities for potential employability than classroom experience. Research also shows volunteerism can strengthen a resume and support other traits sought by employers (Cole, Feild, & Giles, 2003). The exploratory investigation reported here examined the impact of volunteer experience on an applicant's chance of receiving an entry-level position at the YMCA. The researchers surveyed hiring officials at Y’s across the Southeast and Midwest regions of the United States. Results showed 88% of the respondents felt volunteer experience mattered in their decision to offer the candidate an interview. Other important characteristics for entry-level employment were also identified … 
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Key Words: Volunteerism, Entry-level sport and recreation