The IJOVA Volume XXIV, Number 3


In This Issue: “Volunteers and the Other Sectors,” R. Dale Safrit, Ed.D. ... link to pdf


“If I can see further, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants,” R. Dale Safrit, Ed.D. ... link to pdf


Capacity Building for Community-Based Small Nonprofit Minority Health Agencies in Central Florida
Naim Kapucu, Ph.D., Maria-Elena Augustin, & Marla KrauseMinority
Community-Based Organizations (CBO) face unique challenges to capacity building, including the development of a viable volunteer base. The University of Central Florida Public Administration Department, under contract to the Orange County Health Department, has developed an ambitious team approach to capacity building in nine very small, nonprofit, minority CBOs. The project, presently in the second of two performance years, proposes actions and lessons learned of relevance to others in the fields of nonprofit management and volunteer administration. ... link to pdf
Key Words: Capacity building, community-based organizations, nonprofits, volunteering

The Roles We Play: A Study of the Public Relations Roles Nonprofit Organizations' Board Members Play
Richard D. Waters
A nonprofit organization’s most visible volunteers, members of its’ board of directors, play a vital role in sustaining the organization. A literature review suggested board members use public relations efforts to aid in accountability, communication, community outreach, fiscal governance, fundraising, and strategic planning efforts. Using Q-Methodology, this study found board members most frequently use public relations to establish community linkages. Board members also enact public relations roles to plan for the future of the organization, ensure financial accountability, and provide general support to the organization. Alarmingly, a sizeable number of board members stated they have no involvement in the organization’s accountability efforts. ... link to pdf
Key Words: board of directors, public relations, communication, fundraising, volunteers


An Analysis of Psychological Contracts in Volunteerism and the Effect of Contract Breach on Volunteer Contributions to the Organization
Becky J. Starnes, PhD
Studies of the private sector indicate that psychological contracts develop between employers and employees and play an important role in employee performance and retention. This study explores if the same relationship develops between volunteer workers and the organizations they serve. The findings indicate that the volunteers do develop psychological contracts with their not-for-profit organizations and that volunteers perceiving breaches of the contract decrease the number of hours they work, increase (or perceive an increase in) the quality of their work, and do not reduce their intentions to remain with the organization. Suggestions for managing the psychological contracts of volunteers are included. ... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteers, psychological contracts, contract breach


Volunteer Driven Fundraising: Lessons from Total Resource Campaigns
G. Jason Jolley
An increasing number of Chambers of Commerce depend on Total Resource Campaigns to increase organizational revenue. Total Resource Campaigns (TRCs) are annual volunteer- driven marketing campaigns where chambers sell memberships, marketing, sponsorships, and other services in one package during a designated fundraising period. TRCs rely heavily on personal and team-based incentives to recruit and mobilize volunteers in the fundraising effort. The success of TRCs offers lessons for successful volunteer driven fundraising that can be utilized by other not-for-profits. ... link to pdf
Key Words: fundraising, total resource campaign, chamber of commerce


Philanthropy in Mexico
Anthea Stein de Levy
The author summarizes the historical development of the voluntary sector in Mexico, and discusses the contemporary situation regarding voluntarism, volunteerism, and philanthropy. ... link to pdf
Key Words: Mexico, voluntarism, volunteerism, philanthropy

Torn Between Two Sectors: Government or Business?
Lucas C.P.M. Meijs
This article describes the variety in the Dutch nonprofit/volunteer sector and shows five phases in the development of the Dutch nonprofit sector. The first four phases lead to the development of a huge nonprofit sector which is paid staff dominated. Volunteers play an important role in rendering services in many fields but not in fundraising. Recently, the governmental subsidy system has changed fundamentally leading to pressures on nonprofit and volunteer organisations to raise more voluntary input, both in time as well as in money. Staying in line with the historic development, the Dutch government has undertaken several initiatives to support and improve volunteering which have had little success. Initiatives from the corporate sector are on the rise. The expectation is that volunteer administrators can play an important role in helping their organisations attract more voluntary support, both in time and money. ... link to pdf
Key Words: Netherlands, sector relations, government, business

Are We Tending to the Future of Volunteerism?
Irv Katz
The author discusses the need for change among volunteer nonprofit organizations in partnering with public, private, corporate, and community organizations to provide the resources necessary to catalyze innovation. People of all ages and backgrounds have the skills, passion, and interest to help strengthen their communities. Whether and how they are engaged and supported is the difference between meaningful and sustainable impact, and disassociation with a sector that no longer meets their needs. Who better to develop and champion innovation in the sector than volunteer managers? ... link to pdf
Key Words: change, nonprofit, volunteer, collaboration, partnerships


Volunteering in Cultural Institutions: A Comparison Between the United States and Germany
Gesa Birnkraut
While volunteering in the arts in the United States is already a very important factor for the arts sector, this development has just started in Germany. This research is the first to take a look at the standard of volunteer activities and volunteer management in the arts not only in the United States, but also in Germany. A quite important factor is the different history of volunteerism and the founding of the arts institutions in both countries. Negative and positive potentials as well as strengths and weaknesses of volunteer activities in the arts are focused in comparison between the United States and Germany ... link to pdf
Key Words: cultural institutions, arts sector, volunteers, Germany, volunteer management

A Look Inside Corporate Employee Volunteer Programs
Dr. Ellen J. Benjamin
This article provides insights into how corporate employee volunteer programs are run, what they hope to accomplish and how these results are assessed by their administrators. Data presented were collected in a survey of individuals who administer corporate volunteer programs in the Chicago area. Findings will be useful to those companies wishing to initiate or fine-tune their efforts to encourage employees’ work with nonprofits, as well as to agencies and communities seeking to work with corporate volunteerism programs ... link to pdf
Key Words: corporate volunteerism, employees, administration, management

Corporate Employee Volunteer Programs: Considering the Interests of Multiple Stakeholders
William A. Brown, Ph.D. & Robert F. Ashcraft, Ph.D.
Corporate employee volunteer programs are administered to achieve many objectives, such as improved organizational reputation, employee training, and the serving of community needs. This paper presents research into the practices of corporate volunteer programs in Phoenix, Arizona, and considers how different stakeholder groups influence program activities. Results indicate that program administrators assume primary responsibility for running the programs fairly independent of employees or community members. They desire improved public recognition for their programs, but lack consistent practices to encourage promotion. Primarily the programs are operated to encourage employee participation, and the number of hours donated is the most consistent indicator of success. Implications provide guidance for how nonprofit volunteer coordinators can work with employee volunteer programs. ... link to pdf
Key Words: corporate, employee, volunteers, stakeholders, volunteer management

Utilizing Employees as Volunteers
Connie Pirtle
When employees volunteer in their own workplace, it blurs the lines (factually and perceptually) between employment and voluntary engagement. It can become very difficult to distinguish between what employees do for salary and what they do voluntarily. This article looks at the legal and management implications of allowing staff to volunteer within the same organizational structure. ... link to pdf
Key Words: workplace, volunteers, employees

An Analysis of the Voluntary Activities of Military Spouses
Sherry Fontaine, Ph.D. & Mark A. Brennan, Ph.D
An analysis of voluntary activities among military spouses offers a view of volunteerism within a population that is in a unique circumstance. Military spouses often are placed in an unknown geographic area in which new social networks have to be forged and where employment opportunities are not always available. Volunteerism, in this instance, serves to build skills for future employment. In fact, "useful training" was cited as the most important factor by survey respondents in increasing a spouse's interest in volunteerism. The study also indicates that improvements in operational areas can lead toward more interest in volunteering. Having assignments of interest, recognition, and better organization of volunteer programs were all cited as factors that would increase interest in volunteering. Management and leadership improvements would aid in structuring programs that would be useful for individuals involved in volunteer projects, as well as for those considering volunteer activities. ... link to pdf
Key Words: military, volunteers, spouse, reasons, barriers

Why Do they Do It? A Study of Volunteer Commitment in the Parish Setting
Marilyn C. Nelson
To study factors that contribute to volunteer commitment, questionnaires were sent to members of Baptist congregations who were, or recently had been, involved in volunteering. In this setting, how well the volunteer's position utilized her/his talents and gifts and coincided with the agency's/church's mission, a person's satisfaction in volunteering, and the religious and altruistic reasons for volunteering far outweighed material rewards and the desire to have personal needs met. This article adds to the limited literature on church-affiliated volunteers and suggests areas for further study. ... link to pdf
Key Words: religion, volunteers, church, commitment, Baptist, altruism

Investing in Volunteerism: Recommendations Emerging From the Study of the Impact of Volunteers in Texas State Agencies
Sarah Jane Rehnborg, Ph.D. & Meredith DeSpain
Volunteer participation is big business in Texas State Government agencies. A recent study performed by the RGK Center for Philanthropy and Community Service on behalf of the Texas Commission on Volunteerism and Community Service reveals that significantly more than 200,000 Texans serve this state through structured service opportunities, providing contributions in time, in-kind contributions, and donations valued in excess of $42 million. Their work significantly expands the reach of state government, leverages scarce financial resources and actively engages citizens in the work of a democracy. A review of volunteer practices and citizen engagement in eighteen selected state agencies and organizations, points to the extensive, successful deployment of volunteer resources throughout the state of Texas. It also suggests recommendations ranging from the sharing of best practices and the building of partnerships and professional networks, to standardizing data collection and providing liability coverage, which are detailed in the following article. ... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteers, impact, government, agencies, Texas

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