The IJOVA Volume XXV, Number 1


In This Issue: "Volunteerism in Youth Development: A Means to an End, and the End Itself" R. Dale Safrit, Ed.D., Editor-In-Chief ... link to pdf


Gender and Minority Status of Parent Volunteers: A Quantitative Examination of Parent Participation in High Risk and Low Risk Activities
Didi Fahey, Ph.D.
Parent volunteerism is not a homogenous commodity within the school community. While diverse in particulars, generally the jobs that parents do for schools can be classified as either high risk or low risk. High risk volunteer jobs are those that place the volunteer in closer proximity to the children, while low risk jobs are more visible and socially oriented. How parents volunteer is impacted by their minority status and gender. Women and men volunteer in very different ways, as do minority and non-minority parents. Contrary to current research, analyses of data from the Current Population Survey indicate that fathers volunteer for more high risk jobs and mothers prefer to volunteer for more low risk jobs. ... link to pdf
Key Words:volunteering, parent, school, liability

Increasing Parent Volunteer Participation in 4-H
Debra Jones, Linda Skogrand, Ph.D., Donna Carter, & Peggy Black
Volunteering for educational and youth organizations is a high priority with the American public. It is the second largest segment of the over 61 million adults who volunteered in the United States in 2006, double the number in 1989. Researchers have found that adults volunteer because they have a child enrolled in the program. With this premise in mind, this study explored reasons why parents were not actively volunteering with a youth program. A qualitative study was conducted by interviewing parents with a child in a youth program but who were not enrolled as volunteers. Findings indicate that parents look for a program which offers a safe, fun, learning environment, and one which is organized and welcoming to family involvement. Once these elements are evident in a program, parents are more apt to volunteer their time in support of their child’s involvement. Implications of these findings for parent involvement are provided. ... link to pdf
Key Words:volunteer, 4-H, youth development, recruitment, retention, incentive, enticement, family volunteering

The Value of Feeling Included: The Impact of Inclusion on Teen Volunteers’ Organizational Satisfaction
Denise Sevick Bortree, Ph.D., & Richard D. Waters, Ph.D.
Volunteerism has been linked to the development of teamwork, political-moral identities, and social capital among teens. The challenges volunteer managers face include retaining teen volunteers and creating an environment that encourages developmental benefits. The study presented here measures the perceived inclusion that teens feel in their volunteer experiences and tests the impact of inclusion on organizational satisfaction. Results indicated that males experienced more inclusion than females, and teens who worked with adults experienced more inclusion than teens who worked with other teens. Inclusion was a strong predictor of satisfaction with the organization. The level of inclusion of teen volunteers has implications for continued volunteerism and for the realization of developmental benefits. ... link to pdf
Key Words:teenagers, volunteers, inclusion, workgroups, supervisor, decision-making, satisfaction

Youth Volunteers: Effects of Influences, Motivations, and Receptivity on Volunteerism
Rosemary V. Barnett, Ph.D., & M.A. Brennan, Ph.D.
Administrators and managers of volunteer resources and policy planners exhibit a clear need to better understand the role and impact of youth volunteers. As non-profits, volunteer groups, youth programs, and nongovernmental organizations take on larger roles in contributing to local wellbeing, active collaborations between youth and adults is vital to the long-term success of meaningful volunteer efforts. The importance of youth volunteerism is particularly relevant in Florida, which is facing extensive population growth pressures, significant socio-demographic changes, and a growing youth population. This study of Florida youth explores the impact of motivations, influences, and receptivity on youth and their volunteerism. ... link to pdf
Key Words:volunteers, youth, motivations, receptivity, influences

A Conceptual Model for Empowering Youth through Volunteerism
Ed Risler, Ph.D., Michael J. Holosko, Ph.D., & Schnavia Smith Hatcher, Ph.D.
This article presents a rationale for three core elements that should be considered by program administrators for a successful youth volunteer initiative: 1) the environmental context, 2) interactive processes, and 3) identified knowledge-based outcomes. A conceptual framework describing their interrelationship is described for administrators to consider when planning programs to successfully promote the empowerment of youth through volunteerism. When youth are engaged to do for others and their communities, self-efficacy, self-awareness, and eventually empowerment occur as natural by-products of this actualizing process. ... link to pdf
Key Words:youth, empowerment, youth development, volunteerism, engagement


Book Review: The One Minute Answer to Volunteer Management Questions: A Practical Approach.
Mary Kay Hood. (2002). Danville, IN: Underwater Publishing. (87 pp.; Paperback, ISBN-0-9723448-0-2).
Reviewed by Vicki J. Schwartz ... link to pdf


Volunteering: Intentionally Developing a Sense of Mattering in Youth
Ann Michelle Daniels, Ph.D., & Daniel F. Perkins, Ph.D.
Shape Up: Family Style is a nutritional and physical activity program for at-risk families in South Dakota. The Children, Youth, and Families at Risk program’s success depends upon youth volunteers or Youth Action Teams (YATs). By learning and applying life skills through youth engagement opportunities such as Shape Up: Family Style, the YATs were able to be active contributors to their own individual and community’s development. Thus, an intentional environment for at-risk families also became an intentional environment for positive youth engagement and a sense of mattering for the youth volunteers. ... link to pdf
Key Words:youth, volunteer, mattering, engagement, community development

Teenagers as Volunteer Cross-Age Teachers in Out-of-School Programs: Introducing Job Readiness Skills to Middle School Youth
Chad Ripberger, M.S., Laura Bovitz, M.S., Deborah Cole, M.S., & Rachel Lyons, M.S.
Teenage volunteers are often underutilized in the delivery of youth development programs. Organizations facing limited staffing and adult volunteers can expand their outreach to children and youth in after-school and summer programs by recruiting, training, and supporting teenage volunteers as cross-age teachers in these settings. The teens as volunteer teachers model of program delivery can provide a powerful service oriented, community-based learning experience for teenagers while benefiting those they teach. The authors discuss the New Jersey Teens Teaching Middle School Youth Workforce Preparation Skills Program in which 89 teenage volunteers and 95 collaborating after-school staff delivered an average of 20 hours of job readiness programming to 767 youth enrolled at 19 sites. Key elements of such programming are highlighted. ... link to pdf
Key Words:after-school, cross-age teaching, teenagers, volunteers, workforce development


Involving Teens as Volunteers
Scott Kleon, Jeff King, Ph.D., & Betty Wingerter
The Independent Sector found 61 percent of youth (ages 12 to 17) volunteered an average of 3.2 hours per week. Teens volunteered most often through religious organizations, youth development organizations, and schools/educational groups. Few of these teens become volunteers on their own initiative. Instead they are asked by others. A critical factor to successful youth programs is the response of young people to the adults who work with them. It is believed that effective youth leadership programs involve youth in significant relationships with mentors, positive role models, and other nurturing adults. In order to carry out their missions, groups and organizations must properly prepare both the adult volunteers/staff and the teens before and during the volunteer experience. ... link to pdf
Key Words:teens, volunteers, adult relationships, mentors, role models, youth-adult partnerships

An End to the "Me" Generation: Getting Students to Volunteer
Wayne W. Meisel
The author discusses conceptual and structural barriers that may prevent students from volunteering in community service, including: student apathy, students’ perceptions of volunteerism/service, rationalizations and excuses, program structure and mechanics, and the need for student leadership development. ... link to pdf
Key Words:students, volunteers, community service, apathy, excuses, leadership development

Developing Effective Teen-Adult Partnerships Through Volunteerism: Strengthening Empathy, Engagement, Empowerment, and Enrichment
R. Dale Safrit, Ed.D.
America’s youth, and especially those in their teens, need to be engaged in their communities through volunteerism and service that allow them to actively participate in decisions affecting themselves and their families, schools, workplaces, and communities. However, many volunteer administrators and program leaders often experience frustration and encounter unforeseen obstacles as they seek to design, implement, and manage community-based programs involving teens as partners. This article provides a conceptual background to adolescent development as applied to community based programs. The author addresses the “four E’s” critical to forging successful partnerships with teens as volunteers: empathy, engagement, empowerment, and enjoyment. ... link to pdf
Key Words:teens, volunteers, youth-adult partnerships, empathy, engagement, empowerment, enjoyment

"Just Do It!": High-Risk Teenagers Help Themselves While Helping Others
Marilyn Smith & Michael J. Havercamp
The authors describe a program wherein eight teenagers identified as being at high-risk (based upon eight established program criteria) were trained as cross-peer volunteer teachers of younger students. Program evaluations suggested that the program resulted in improved selfesteem and academic performance of the high-risk volunteer teachers. Younger students taught increased knowledge through the cross-peer sessions. ... link to pdf
Key Words:teenagers, high-risk, self-esteem, cross-peer

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