The IJOVA Volume XXV, Number 3


In This Issue: "All the World’s a Stage…" R. Dale Safrit, Ed.D., Editor-In-Chief ... link to pdf


Episodic Volunteering: Why People Walk/Run for Charity
Joan Beder, D.S.W., & Jonathan Fast, D.S.W.
Yearly, millions of citizens give significant amounts of time and energy to volunteering. In the last few decades, a special form of volunteering has emerged – episodic volunteering – in which individuals volunteer for specific events on a sporadic basis and for limited duration. An example of episodic volunteering is the efforts volunteers make participating in charity walks or runs. The research focus in this article was initiated to help understand the motivations of the episodic volunteer who participates in such an activity by walking or running. Using the Volunteer Motivation Inventory, certain motivational factors (domains) and demographic trends were identified. Findings can prove helpful for those who organize such episodic volunteer efforts.... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteer, episodic, motivation, charity efforts

Episodic Volunteerism after Hurricane Katrina: Insights from Pass Christian, Mississippi
Alyson L. Greiner, Ph.D., & Thomas A. Wikle, Professor
Volunteers and volunteer coordinators play critical roles in the response following a natural disaster. Episodic volunteerism, a key aspect of volunteerism today, has become increasingly important in the disaster recovery process. This paper examines episodic volunteerism in the context of the recovery from Hurricane Katrina with a focus on events in the small Mississippi Gulf Coast town of Pass Christian. Drawing on field work, interviews, and secondary resources the study explores the role of volunteer coordinators in managing the volunteer response. Along with a discussion of the nature of episodic volunteerism in Pass Christian, the paper provides some new strategies for volunteer administrators. ... link to pdf
Key Words: episodic volunteerism, Hurricane Katrina, Mississippi

Understanding the Commitment and Motivation of Episodic Volunteers for a Large Sporting Event
Shannon M. Hamm, M.A., Joanne C. MacLean, Ph.D., & Katie E. Misener, M.H.K.
Research indicates that volunteers are a critical part of staging a successful short-term and/or annual sporting event. Thus, understanding factors impacting volunteers’ commitment and motivation is essential. The purpose of this paper was to uncover the importance of the factors that contribute to volunteer commitment and motivation of episodic volunteers at a large sporting event. The researchers used a convenience sample of 255 volunteers at a large professional women’s golf event. The results revealed a four-factor structure of both volunteer commitment and motivation. The authors suggest that context-specific factors related to volunteer commitment and motivation exist and should be considered by event managers of volunteer resources. ... link to pdf
Key Words: episodic, volunteers, commitment, motivation, sporting events

A Comparison of Motivations of American and Japanese Volunteers in Ladies Professional Golf Association Tournaments
Keunsu Han, Ph.D., & Sheila Nguyen, M.Ed., A.T.C.
This exploratory study examined and compared primary motives influencing American and Japanese volunteers of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA). Data were collected from 281 volunteers who participated in LPGA tournament events in America and Japan. Japanese volunteers were found to be more involved in volunteer service due to “Social/Leisure” and “Material” reasons, while American volunteers were found to be associated with “Egoistic” and “Purposive” motivations. There was no significant difference in the “External Influences” factor. The study contributes to personnel and administration research and provides insight on the ways in which the LPGA event volunteers are managed in America and Japan.... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteers, motivation, culture, professional golf

One of a Kind? Comparing Episodic and Regular Volunteers at the Philadelphia Ronald McDonald House
Lesley Hustinx, Ph.D., Debbie Haski-Leventhal, Ph.D., & Femida Handy, Ph.D.
Studies find evidence of a growing trend in episodic volunteering and suggest that it attracts individuals with a different volunteering ethos than long-term and regular volunteers. The authors examine volunteers at the Philadelphia Ronald McDonald House (PRMH), an organization that successfully recruits and manages episodic volunteers and regular volunteers who are engaged in different tasks. Responding to the changing trends of volunteer labor supply, PRMH created different roles for episodic and regular volunteers. This study explored if PRMH episodic volunteers were different from regular volunteers in their motivation, satisfaction, and rewards. Certain interesting differences revealed (albeit not always in support of the authors’ original hypotheses) are important both at the theoretical level and at the practical level for recruitment and management of volunteers. ... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteering, episodic, net cost, motivation, satisfaction, rewards

Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) Episodic Volunteers: Training and Retraining
Thomas Madison, Ph.D., Stephanie G. Ward, Ph.D., & Kent Royalty, LLM.
The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) Program is an outgrowth of congressional efforts to deliver economic assistance to low-income working taxpayers without additional funding for a bureaucratic delivery system. VITA, like many nonprofit and charitable programs, is heavily dependent on episodic volunteers. The authors discuss a study of volunteer opinions about the training required of VITA volunteer tax preparers. VITA coalitions must successfully balance the implementation of training programs that provide episodic volunteers with the necessary skills to accurately complete tax returns, but that are not so lengthy and burdensome as to discourage volunteer participation. The conclusions reached by the authors are designed to assist not only VITA coalitions, but any volunteer resource manager with training implementation that meets both episodic volunteers’ needs and the organization’s strategic goals. ... link to pdf
Key Words: income tax, episodic, volunteer, recruitment, training

Episodic Volunteering: A Comparison of the Motivation of Volunteers from Two Professional Golf Events
Gina Pauline, Ed.D., Jeffrey S. Pauline, Ed.D., & Thalia Mulvihill, Ph.D.
Understanding volunteer motivation has been widely recognized as a valuable component to volunteer resource management, specifically for elite sport events which attract episodic volunteers. This cross sectional descriptive study investigated the primary motivation of volunteers from two elite golf events, the Professional Golf Association (PGA) Championship, and the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) Solheim Cup event. Findings indicated that volunteers from both events have a strong desire to help make the event a success. Solheim Cup volunteers had significantly higher motivation than PGA Championship volunteers for the five factors explored. The study’s implications may assist sport managers and/or volunteer resource managers in designing quality volunteer experiences that enhance the overall volunteerism experience, strengthening both the episodic volunteers’ work ethics and event management logistics. ... link to pdf
Key Words: episodic, volunteers, motivation, sports, golf


Episodic Volunteers . . . A Fleeting Species?
Nancy Macduff
The episodic volunteer may be considered a “fleeting species,” i.e., here today and gone tomorrow. This commentary suggests that more intentional management of episodic volunteers can pay benefits to the volunteer resource manager. The author explores three problem areas that hamper and impede the effective engagement of short-service episodic volunteers in some programs: 1. Resources; 2. Running parallel programs for episodic volunteers; and, 3. Applied research. ... link to pdf
Key Words: episodic volunteer, resource development, parallel programs, applied research


Book Review:
A Review of Episodic Volunteering: Organizing and Managing the Short-Term Volunteer Program

Author: Nancy Macduff. (2004). Walla Walla, WA, MBA Publishing, (93 pp., Soft cover and electronically as PDF; ISBN - 0945795-15-7, Available at Bookstore) Reviewed by Ryan J. Schmiesing, Ph.D. ... link to pdf


An Application and Screening Process for Episodic Volunteers that Works!
Harriett C. Edwards, Ed.D.
The author describes the statewide application and screening materials she developed for use with episodic volunteers in the North Carolina 4-H Youth Development program of the Cooperative Extension Service at North Carolina State University. ... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteer, episodic, written application, screening


Making a Difference in a Day: An Assessment of "Join Hands Day"
Robert K. Christensen, James L. Perry, & Laura Littlepage
The authors surveyed participants in an annual intergenerational episodic volunteerism program called Join Hands Day (JHD) that endeavors to bring youth and adults together through meaningful volunteer activity. Findings suggested that effective intergenerational community service programs must be generational partnerships that offer opportunities for common, valued contributions, balanced relationships between young and old participants, preparation and support for all participants, and opportunities for reflection. ... link to pdf
Key Words: episodic, volunteerism, community service, intergenerational

Organizational Effectiveness in Utilizing Episodic Volunteers Based on Perceptions of 4-H Youth Development Professionals
Harriett C. Edwards, Ed.D.
Managing contemporary volunteer programs requires administrators to be alert to trends and their implications for voluntary agencies. The reality of episodic volunteerism and practitioners’ attitudes related to this phenomenon of modern volunteer management was the focus of this study. The Points of Light Foundation’s Changing the Paradigm Report Action Principles (Allen, 1995) and Macduff’s (1991) indicators of organizational readiness for episodic volunteers provided the bases for this exploratory, descriptive-correlational study assessing 4-H Youth Development agents’ perceptions of organizational effectiveness in utilizing episodic volunteers. Study findings reveal valuable information for the profession in preparing administrators for the reality of episodic volunteer involvement. ... link to pdf
Key Words: episodic, volunteers, 4-H, organizational, paradigm

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