The IJOVA Volume XXVIII, Number 3


In This Issue: Volunteers Supporting Volunteer Resource Managers: Thank You One and All
... link to pdf


Understanding Youth as Volunteers: Implications for Volunteer Resource Managers
Kimberly Allen, Ph.D.
With the increased need for volunteers, volunteer resource managers are becoming more creative about recruitment. As such, there has been a marked increase in youth volunteers during the past two decades (Cooperation for National and Community Service, 2005). Working with youth as volunteers brings unique opportunities and challenges. This article provides information for volunteer resource managers to better understand the developmental and    generational norms of adolescents and provides insights and tips for working with youth volunteers.... link to pdf
Key Words: adolescent, teens, volunteers, development, implications

Former Volunteers Report on the Most Meaningful Factors Affecting their Service with the Oregon Long Term Care Ombudsman Program
H. Wayne Nelson, Ph.D., F. Ellen Netting, Ph.D., Kevin Borders, Ph.D., Ruth Huber, Ph.D.,& Daniel Agley, D.Ed.
Retaining the nation's current force of about 8,700 volunteer ombudsmen is a top priority for    America's ombudsman program leaders. As part of a larger study on volunteer ombudsman    attrition, 147 former ombudsmen were asked about the most meaningful aspects of their    volunteer work. Among the 298 responses, three thematic domains emerged, each containing    several subcategories: (a) power issues (45% e.g., resolving problems/helping residents), (b)    affiliation issues (41%, e.g., positive social contacts), and (c) program issues (5%, e.g., staff
support and training). Former ombudsmen were also asked what would have encouraged them    to remain on the job. This resulted in 251 replies categorized in five distinct domains: (a)    program issues (53%, e.g., better staff support), (b) personal issues (14%, e.g., better health), (c)    power issues (14%, e.g., success in causing change), (d) system adversity issues (9% e.g., better    enforcement), and (d) boredom items (1%, e.g., need more to do). This study suggests that    volunteer ombudsmen's meaningful work motives included the altruistic power drive of resolving    problems to help residents and the desire for positive work relationships. Implications for these motives are discussed including the concern that strong relationships with facility staff may    dilute the ombudsman's watchdog/reformist role. Findings suggest that former volunteers may    have been encouraged to remain in service by improved program factors, especially better staff    support. Implications and recommendations regarding training, retention, and enhanced longdistance management techniques are presented including the need for web and video based applications to improve volunteer work role socialization and retention.... link to pdf
Key Words: ombudsmen, motivation, retention, volunteer, advocate

Factors Promoting Perceived Organizational Care: Implications for Volunteer Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
Simon M. Rice & Barry J. Fallon, Ph.D.
Turnover is costly for any organization regardless whether it is paid staff or volunteers who    leave. Polices and retention strategies that promote satisfaction and ongoing commitment to the    organization are essential for maintaining an effective and skilled volunteer workforce. This study draws comparisons between the satisfaction and intention to stay of volunteers (n = 2,306) and paid employees (n = 274) within an emergency services organization on variables that reflect organizational care for the individual. Results indicate that 52% of volunteer satisfaction and 20% of volunteer intention to stay is explained by the three organizational care variables studied: recognition, respect, and welfare. Consistent with prediction, in each case the organizational care variables explained greater variance for volunteers compared to paid employees. Findings highlight the importance of organizational policies promoting positive relatedness amongst volunteers in prompting ongoing volunteer commitment and satisfaction. ... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteers, satisfaction, commitment, retention


Book Review: A Review of
The Volunteer Management Handbook (Second Edition)

Editor: Tracy D. Connors. (2012). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (436 pages. ISBN 978-0-470-60453-3 hardback)
Reviewed by Janet Fox, Ph.D.... link to pdf

A Body of Knowledge for the Practice of
Volunteer Administration

Katherine H. Campbell
A description of the core competencies and performance expectations which define sound practice for those who lead and manage volunteer engagement. The Body of Knowledge document is a valuable resource for practitioners, agency executives and educators. ... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteer management, core competencies, standards of practice, curriculum development

Risk Management for Volunteer Resource Managers: Pre-Event Planning Matrix
Dale Pracht, Ph.D., Bryan D. Terry, Ph.D., & Kate Fogarty, Ph.D.
Risk has been defined as the exposure to the possibility of loss, injury, or other adverse or unwelcome circumstance. Risks are inherent in most activities and programs delivered by volunteer-based organizations and can take many forms. These forms of risk include the risk to people, property, financial solvency and reputation. Given that risk exists, volunteer-based organizations must manage risk. Risk management involves a process of identification, analysis and either acceptance or mitigation of uncertainty involved in making a decision. Incorporating risk management into a volunteer-based organization involves several processes. These include risk analysis, risk response, and risk review. To protect the safety of participants, sponsors, property, finances, and the goodwill/reputation of the organization's name a systematic approach to risk management is recommended. The pre-event planning guide and matrix has
been created to aid volunteer resource managers, volunteer program directors, staff, volunteers, and participants to assess, plan, and minimize the risk involved with the activities of a volunteerbased organization.... link to pdf
Key Words: risk management, volunteers, volunteer-based organizations

Using Google Docs and the Web to Manage and Recruit Volunteers
Rachel R. Rudd, & Stacey S. MacArthur, Ph.D.
Recruiting and managing volunteers in programs can be difficult and time consuming. Using Google Docs can be an effective way to reach a more diverse volunteer base, to direct volunteer opportunities, and to manage volunteer data. The purpose of this article is to walk the reader through the process of using Google Docs and the related applications in coordination with the internet to save time and to facilitate successful volunteer recruitment and management.
... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteers, management, recruitment, Google Docs

Strategic Thinking: A Novel Approach to Professionalizing the Profession
Jeanette D. Savage, & Jill M. Fowler
Volunteer resource management is becoming more and more visible as a profession. Colleges and Universities are now offering specific courses in volunteer resource management instead of simply building the subject matter into a human resource or program administration course for nonprofit degrees. Additionally, increased emphasis is being placed on practitioners obtaining
professional credentials in the field, and professional associations are working towards developing occupational standards. As a supplement to the efforts of formalizing the training for volunteer resource mangers, strategic thinking should be recognized as a skill worth promoting and developing amongst professionals in the field. Strategic thinking was instrumental in all the major advancements of the past few centuries and can be critical to successfully managing and administering volunteer programs and elevating the profession. ... link to pdf
Key Words: strategic, credentialing, professionalizing, decision-making


Competencies Comprising Contemporary Volunteer Administration: An Empirical Model Bridging Theory with Professional Best Practice
R. Dale Safrit, Ed.D., Ryan J. Schmiesing, Ph.D., Joseph A. Gliem, Ph.D., & Rosemary R. Gliem, Ph.D.
The researchers used a mailed questionnaire to collect data from International Association for Volunteer Administration members investigating their perceptions of the importance of respective contemporary volunteer management and administration competencies. Principle component statistical analysis resulted in the identification of seven unique components, including: (1) Volunteer Recruitment and Selection; (2) Volunteer Administrator Professional
Development; (3) Volunteer Orientation and Training; (4) Volunteer Program Advocacy; (5) Volunteer Program Maintenance; (6) Volunteer Recognition; and (7) Volunteer Program Resource Development. Based upon the research findings, the authors propose a modified version of Safrit and Schmiesing's (2004) original P.E.P. model for volunteer administration comprised of three overarching professional domains of (Professional) Preparation, (Volunteer) Engagement, and (Program) Perpetuation encompassing seven volunteer administration topic
areas consisting of 62 specific competencies.... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteer administration, professional, competencies, model

Preventing Burnout: Taking the Stress Out of the Job
Marcia Kessler
The purpose of this article and of the workshop on this subject presented at the 1989 International Conference on Volunteer Administration is to inform Directors of Volunteers of a new approach to burnout prevention which can directly impact occurrences among themselves and their co-workers. We in volunteer administration are not immune; our burnout rates average 3 1/2 years. This situation, left unchecked, poses a threat to the long term effectiveness of our
organizations.... link to pdf
Key Words: burnout, volunteer managers

Recruitment and Retention of Volunteers in Florida: Results From a Practitioner Survey
Jacqueline Flynn, & Mary Ann Feldheim
The authors examine volunteer recruitment and retention practices of nonprofit organizations in Florida. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to the total population of 485 volunteer administrators with a 33% completion rate. Findings suggest that person-to-person volunteer recruitment was most effective, followed by targeted recruitment. Mission-related volunteer roles, volunteer training, volunteer recognition practices, and written volunteer job descriptions were found to be important retention practices employed by the responding nonprofits. ... link to pdf
Key Words: volunteer, recruitment, retention, mission, training, recognition, written job descriptions

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